Präsidentialismus in Venezuela: Macht durch Verfassung und tatsächliche Politik (German Edition)

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Strategische Interaktion im deutschen Regierungssystem

Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. Gustavo Dudamel was awarded Premio de la Latindad in , an honor given for outstanding contributions to Latin cultural life by the Union Latina organization. In , he won the Q Prize from Harvard University for extraordinary service to children and in he was made Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the french Government. For centuries, the economy of Venezuela has been based on one export, first cocoa and coffee, and since the beginning of the twentieth century, oil.

Venezuela was the world largest exporter of oil by the 's, and was a founding member of the OPEC in It is today the world fifth largest exporter and is estimated to have the world's largest crude oil reserves. Another constant of the country's economy is that the resulting wealth remained far away from the common people. By the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, popular uprising led to the advent of a democratic government in , and the country remained quite stable, politically and economically, until it was hit hard by the drop in world oil prices at the end of the 's.

By the end of the 's, almost half of the population lived under the poverty line. The murder rate is extremely high, due mainly to drug traffics. Social spending per inhabitant in Venezuela is about the same as in other countries in the region [12] , but the way the state has elected to use music to face these problems makes its social development policy stand apart from any other country in the world.

FESNOJIV was born thanks to a man who, in the 's, grew convinced that musical education would be the best way to fight poverty and exclusion. In the beginning of , about ten young professional musicians joined around Dr. The ensemble grew very fast, with students coming from the Caracas music schools and the original members acting as teachers. By the end of April the orchestra was 83 musicians strong when Dr. The success of this first concert led to the creation of other youth orchestras all around the country, with the same method of using young professionals both as teachers and members of the ensemble.

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The first years of the movement saw it growing very fast, taking advantage of the then-flourishing economy of the country. But even after the oil crisis at the end of the 's the System kept on developing, until each of the 23 states of Venezuela had at least an orchestra. Abreu at its head. After three decades of stable management and national and international recognition he still continues today the work of expanding the orchestra network. Abreu is administratively the head of the highest authority of FESNOJIV, the Board of Directors, made up of him as Executive Director, and four Directors, two of whom are appointed by the ministry in charge of the Foundation, and the two other by the board itself.

Each center has a president, who belongs to the national organization, and a director, acting usually as school director and conductor. In most cases, directors are very young people who just finished their studies in the System. Although the structures are quite homogenous, the centers are quite free in the way they apply the curriculum, and they communicate a lot to share experience and resources. There are very important variations in the sizes of the nucleos, the average being beneficiaries. To more effectively manage the fast-growing system, FESNOJIV is creating an intermediate level, which will consist of seven regional centers throughout the country, planned to be all active by Outside Caracas, this impulse may mean little more than precious private lessons for the most motivated students, but it allows top talent students to get into conservatory-like tracks with extra lessons and to highest-level conservatory training in Caracas after they complete their high school years.

In addition to these musical-education structures, the System includes seven instrument- maker centers, the first of which was established as early as They serve both as schools for instrument-making and as a decisive provider of new instruments for the needs of the growing system. Art in Latin-America is no more for an elite, but a right for all, a social right. In , about 2 million children had gone through El Sistema and benefited from this social right. They were having daily lessons in , in , and they are today Although targeted at the unprivileged, El Sistema is open to all.

Due to the rising reputation of the pedagogy developed, more and more rich families are interested in putting their children in orchestras, and FESNOJIV is now developing social criteria of admission to ensure that no exclusion results from its success.

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The fight against exclusion is one of the keywords of the System, and leads to the will of including the most vulnerable communities. The consciousness of the government about El Sistema's social effect, and the power it has for the image of the country on the political side, have radically changed the way FESNOJIV expands. After being used to struggle with finding places for its nucleos, occupying any available building, it now has to face ever more requests from municipalities for opening new centers all over the country.

The Chavez government has recently committed to triple the funding and the number of students involved within ten years, bringing it to one million children, and to expand the system to the school-day. Since its beginning, the program has indeed always been almost entirely government funded. That is to say, the Venezuelan State takes in charge the entirety of the musical education of all these children. To ensure that the same opportunity is offered to each child, the parents don't have to pay any charges for the lessons and the instruments are offered.

Moreover, almost every student gets a stipend for playing in a youth or a city orchestra.

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This led in a total budget of Over its thirty years of existence, the System has managed to keep the State's support growing although the government changed six times from highly conservative to very liberal, even in times of economic crisis. One reason might be that Dr. Abreu always managed for the funding to come not from cultural ministries, but from social welfare.

The program also has a few private and foundation donations, but they are not major supports. It has enough classrooms, practice rooms and performance space for students. At the request of Dr. Abreu, the building is strictly dedicated to music and has therefore almost no administrative offices.

This loan will help in a number of areas. The financial and administrative systems will be improved, and more importantly the seven new Regional Centers will be built. Another sizable part of this money will be used for the purchase of new instruments. Finally, fund-raising strategies will be developed, such as working on the System's image and building communication campaigns, in order to increase private funding and make El Sistema more sustainable economically in the long term.

In preparing the application for the second IDB loan, a study was conducted at the end of to establish whether or not El Sistema was economically worth investing in.

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The results showed that each dollar invested in the System would create a return of 1. The drop of social costs comes mainly from lower school-dropout and criminality rates. Still according to the IDB study, the main individual benefits for children who went through the System are improvement in academic achievement and psychological development, the whole community benefiting from it through amelioration of individual behavior. The class-attendance rate of children playing in the System is The percentage of parents or guardians being notified of behavior problems at school is Also, students who spent some years in El Sistema complete high school and go to college in higher percentage.

Some students leave the System when they complete primary school, around age 12, but at this time they have spent in most cases six or more years in it, and have acquired the skills and values that make the statistics above possible. The reduction of youth violence is to be observed in a spectacular manner in the Los Chorros home mentioned above.


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According to the head of the home, violent episodes almost disappeared with the start of the orchestra. Abreu about this project:. We teach them the instruments, and in two or three years they are ready for incorporation into social life. Another direct accomplishment of El Sistema is the mixing of social classes. Through events in the community, the structure also builds connections between the people involved, no matter from which social class they come, by serving the entire population.

It is therefore much more than a welfare program for children, by enabling poor people to escape the barrios. El Sistema does not only help people to get out of poverty through music.

Semipräsidentielles Regierungssystem
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